Geithner, who arrived here along with Federal Reserve Vice Chairman Donald Kohn, also met Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh earlier in the day.
He is expected to discuss ways to rebalance the global economy.
The discussions will complement a strategic dialogue program that the United States shares with China, but will be more limited in scope, according to U.S. treasury officials.
The two sides are also expected to discuss infrastructure financing, with the Treasury offering expertise in helping India develop a municipal bond market, and India sharing experience in private-sector infrastructure development.
Before meeting Dr. Singh, Geithner visited a storefront mobile banking site on the outskirts of the national capital that is affiliated with Eko, a nonprofit organisation, and the State Bank of India.
The US Treasury Secretary said he wanted to show how India was coming up with creative solutions to its development problems.
On Wednesday, Geithner will hold a roundtable discussion with US financial companies and Indian entrepreneurs in Mumbai. (ANI)