The Finn, winner of the previous two Belgian Grands Prix with McLaren and taking his 13th career pole and third of the season, lapped in 1:45.994, with Brazilian team mate Felipe Massa second fastest.
McLaren's Formula One championship leader Lewis Hamilton qualified fourth and starts alongside his Spanish team mate Fernando Alonso on the second row.
Hamilton leads double world champion Alonso by three points with four races remaining. Raikkonen is third overall, 18 points adrift of the 22-year-old British rookie.
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